Although the problem is multifactorial, he groups them into three major:
The first are regulatory challenges that have made the manufacturing of these products safer and more reliable, but also in some cases more challenging and expensive.Hence, the best way to alleviate these shortages is not more government regulations but rather free market reforms.
The second are mechanisms that make prices sticky, limiting profitability and precluding new investment in additional supply and better and more efficient manufacturing.
The third and final category is market structures that prevent firms from branding their products, and reflecting by how they price them, legitimate improvements in manufacturing that allow drugs to be produced more reliably and in scalable facilities.
For more details, read the full text of "The causes of drug shortages and proposals for repairing these markets".